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美签证新规:要求申请者提交5年内社交媒体数据

更新时间:2018-4-2 12:30:52 来源:千亿千亿国际娱乐官网 作者:佚名

14 Million Visitors to U.S. Face Social Media Screening
美签证新规:要求申请者提交5年内社交媒体数据

Nearly all applicants for a visa to enter the United States — an estimated 14.7 million people a year — will be asked to submit their social media user names for the past five years, under proposed rules that the State Department issued on Friday.

根据美国国务院上周五公布的新提出的规定,几乎所有申请美国入境签证的人都将被要求提交他们在过去五年里使用的社交媒体用户名。每年申请入美签证的人数据估计有1470万人。

Last September, the Trump administration announced that applicants for immigrant visas would be asked for social media data, a plan that would affect 710,000 people or so a year. The new proposal would vastly expand that order to cover some 14 million people each year who apply for nonimmigrant visas.

去年9月,特朗普政府曾宣布,申请移民签证的人将被要求提供社交媒体数据,受这个计划影响的人约为71万。新提议将极大地扩大这条命令的覆盖范围,把每年约1400万申请非移民签证的人包括进来。

The proposal covers 20 social media platforms. Most of them are based in the United States: Facebook, Flickr, Google+, Instagram, LinkedIn, Myspace, Pinterest, Reddit, Tumblr, Twitter, Vine and YouTube. But several are based overseas: the Chinese sites Douban, QQ, Sina Weibo, Tencent Weibo and Youku; the Russian social network VK; Twoo, which was created in Belgium; and Ask.fm, a question-and-answer platform based in Latvia.

该提议涉及20个社交媒体平台。它们当中的大部分是美国的:Facebook、Flickr、Google+、Instagram、领英(LinkedIn)、Myspace、Pinterest、Reddit、Tumblr、Twitter、Vine以及YouTube。但也有一些是美国以外的:中国的网站豆瓣、QQ、新浪微博、腾讯微博和优酷;俄罗斯的社交网络VK;创建于比利时的Twoo;以及拉脱维亚的一个问答平台Ask.fm。

During his campaign, President Trump promised “extreme vetting” of people seeking to enter the United States, and last March the State Department directed consular officers worldwide to step up scrutiny of visa applicants.

特朗普总统在竞选期间曾承诺,要对那些想进入美国的人进行“极端审查”。去年3月,美国国务院指示世界各地的领事官员加强对签证申请者的审查。

But the new proposal would add a tangible new requirement for millions of people who apply to visit the United States for business or pleasure, including citizens of such countries as Brazil, China, India and Mexico.

但这项新提议,将给数百万包括巴西、中国、印度和墨西哥等国公民在内的申请来美国进行商务或娱乐旅行的人增加一个新的实际要求。

Citizens of roughly 40 countries to which the United States ordinarily grants visa-free travel will not be affected by the requirement. Those countries include major allies like Australia, Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Japan and South Korea.

美国通常给予约40个国家的公民免签证旅行的待遇,这些国家包括澳大利亚、英国、加拿大、法国、德国、日本和韩国等主要盟国,这些国家的人将不受新要求的影响。

In addition, visitors traveling on diplomatic and official visas will mostly be exempted.

此外,使用外交和因公签证旅行的访问者也大都不受新规定的影响。

As news of the plan emerged on Friday, so did criticism.

新规定的消息于周五传出后,批评之声随之而来。

“This attempt to collect a massive amount of information on the social media activity of millions of visa applicants is yet another ineffective and deeply problematic Trump administration plan,” said Hina Shamsi, director of the American Civil Liberties Union’s National Security Project. “It will infringe on the rights of immigrants and U.S. citizens by chilling freedom of speech and association, particularly because people will now have to wonder if what they say online will be misconstrued or misunderstood by a government official.”

“这个尝试将收集数百万签证申请者的社交媒体活动的大量信息,这是特朗普政府的又一个无效且有严重问题的计划,”美国公民自由联盟(American Civil Liberties Union)国家安全项目负责人海纳·善姆斯(Hina Shamsi)说。“这会让言论和结社自由受到威胁,从而侵犯移民和美国公民的权利,尤其让人们不由得开始担心,他们在网上说的话是否会被政府官员误解或误读。”

Anil Kalhan, an associate professor of law at Drexel University who works on immigration and international human rights, wrote on Twitter, “This is unnecessarily intrusive and beyond ridiculous.”

德雷塞尔大学(Drexel University)法学副教授阿尼尔·卡尔汉(Anil Kalhan)从事移民和千亿国际娱乐人权方面的工作,他在Twitter上写道,“这是过分的侵扰,是再荒唐不过的做法。”

Facebook said its position had not changed since last year, when it said: “We oppose any efforts to force travelers at the border to turn over their private account information, including passwords.”

Facebook说,公司的立场自去年以来没有变过,公司曾在去年表示:“我们反对任何迫使旅行者在边境上交出个人账号信息(包括密码)的努力。”

Along with the social media information, visa applicants will be asked for past passport numbers, phone numbers and email addresses; for records of international travel; whether they have been deported or removed, or violated immigration law, in the past; and whether relatives have been involved in terrorist activities.

除社交媒体信息外,签证申请人还被要求提供以前的护照号码、电话号码和电子邮件地址,他们的千亿国际娱乐旅行记录,他们以前是否曾被驱逐出境、或违反过移民法,以及他们的亲属是否参与过恐怖主义活动。

“Maintaining robust screening standards for visa applicants is a dynamic practice that must adapt to emerging threats,” the State Department said in a statement. “We already request limited contact information, travel history, family member information, and previous addresses from all visa applicants. Collecting this additional information from visa applicants will strengthen our process for vetting these applicants and confirming their identity.”

“对签证申请人保持严格的筛查标准是一个动态的过程,必须与新威胁的出现相适应,”美国国务院在一份声明中说。“我们已经要求所有签证申请者提供有限的联系信息、旅行历史、家庭成员信息和以前的地址。从签证申请者那里收集这些额外的信息,将加强我们审查这些申请人、确认他们身份的过程。”

Millions of people each year complete the online application for a nonimmigrant visa, known as the DS-160. It takes about 90 minutes to fill out, according to the department.

每年有数百万人在网上填写名为DS-160的非移民签证申请表。据美国国务院的说法,填写这个表格大约需要花90分钟的时间。

The San Bernardino, Calif., terrorist attack in 2015, which killed 14 people, focused attention on immigrants’ social-media use, after officials acknowledged that they had missed signs of online radicalization in an online-messaging platform used by the husband and wife who carried out the attack.

2015年,加州圣贝纳迪诺发生的恐怖袭击事件导致14人死亡,官员们事后承认,他们没有注意到制造袭击的夫妻在他们使用的在线短信平台上表现出来的激进迹象。自那之后,人们开始关注移民对社交媒体的使用。

Last year, John F. Kelly, who was then the secretary of homeland security and is now Mr. Trump’s chief of staff, told members of Congress that his department was considering asking visitors for passwords and access to online accounts.

去年,时任国土安全部部长、现为特朗普幕僚长的约翰·F·凯利(John F. Kelly)曾对国会议员说,他所在的部门正在考虑要求来访者提供得以进入他们在线账户的密码。

“We want to get on their social media, with passwords,” Mr. Kelly told members of the House Homeland Security Committee. “If they don’t want to cooperate, then you don’t come in.”

“我们想得到密码,进入他们的社交媒体账号,”凯利对众议院国土安全委员会的议员们说。“如果他们不愿意配合,就不能入境。”

So far, the government has stopped short of demanding passwords, though travelers have reported being asked for them, on a sporadic basis, at airports and other ports of entry. By some measures, the number of international visitors to the United States has begun to slip, although foreign tourism to New York City set a record last year.

到目前为止,政府还没有严格执行让旅客交出密码的要求,尽管旅客们在机场和其他入境口岸偶尔会遇到这样的要求。从某些方面来看,前来美国的千亿国际娱乐游客数量已开始出现下滑,尽管去年来纽约的外国游客数量创下了纪录。

The new State Department requirements will not take effect immediately. The proposal set off a 60-day period for public comment, which ends on May 29.

国务院的新要求不会立即生效。这个提议将有60天的公众评论期,截至5月29日。

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