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以色列公园地下的隐秘宝藏

更新时间:2018-5-5 15:56:10 来源:千亿千亿国际娱乐官网 作者:佚名

The Israeli park with a valuable secret
以色列公园地下的隐秘宝藏

In Israel’s Negev Desert, a side road leads to a valley ringed by red, purple and brown cliffs. Now part of Timna National Park, this valley is famous for its jagged landscape carved by wind and water over many millennia. Tourists and geologists alike come here to admire rock formations shaped like giant mushrooms, elegant pillars and delicate arches.

在以色列内盖夫沙漠(Negev Desert),有一条岔道通向一片山谷。这片山谷被或红或紫或棕色的耀眼岩壁环绕。这个山谷属于提姆纳国家公园的一部分,因其千年来被谷间的风雨雕琢出嵯峨嶙峋的岩石景观而闻名。游客与地质学家都喜欢来这里瞻仰经千百万年风雨侵蚀如鬼斧神工的沙岩峭壁,它们有些像巨大的蘑菇,有些像粗壮的象腿,还有些则像宏美的拱门。

It was mid-morning when I set off on a short hike, and the sun was already blazing hot. From a trailhead near the park’s famous coral-coloured rock formation known as the Arches, I ascended a small hill and within 10 minutes stood atop a plateau. From up here I could see the valley’s rugged terrain, with cliffs above and canyons below.

某日半晌午时分,艳阳高照,我出发去短途徒步。从提姆纳公园最出名的一处名为“拱门”的珊瑚色岩石附近的入口出发后,我爬上一座小山丘。不到十分钟,就登顶了。站在高岗上,我看见这片山谷崎岖嶙峋,上有陡崖,下有峡谷。

As amazing as the scenery was, the full story of this place – and the reason why people flocked to this harsh landscape in prehistoric times – can only be experienced by heading underground.

这里的风景虽壮丽,但关于这片地方真正的来龙去脉以及为何远古时期人们会蜂拥来到这片不毛之地,只有深入地下才能探出个究竟。

Timna National Park was once one of the centres of metal production in the ancient world; here, thousands of mining shafts and tunnels were painstakingly bored to harvest the copper embedded in the stone.

提姆纳国家公园所在的区域曾是人类远古时代的一个金属制造中心。在这里,古代工人辛苦挖掘出成千上万的矿井和隧道用来开采岩石里的铜金属。

Specks of green and blue copper ore dotted the gravel-covered trail as I approached the park’s oldest mines, dug as early as 4500BC. Metal handrails help visitors navigate a few metres down a steep slope to enter the mine, a narrow passageway with ceilings so low I had to crawl on my hands and knees to avoid hitting my head. Beams of light shone into the tunnel from openings that have emerged over the years from erosion, exposing the vertical scores on the walls left by the stone tools used to carve the cavity into the Earth.

我沿着一条小道走近公园内年代最久远的一处采矿场,其挖掘年代竟然远至公元前4500年。砾石覆盖的小道上还能看见蓝绿色的铜绿印记斑斑。游客能攀着金属扶梯顺着陡峭的坡再往下走个几米,进到矿井里面。通道非常低矮,我必须蜷曲着身子,四肢爬行以防磕着脑袋。矿井的入口因岁月的侵蚀才显露出来。有微弱光线从入口处照进来,照见了洞内墙上垂直排列的标记,这是古代工人用石器在墙上凿出来的。

“[Miners] worked in very harsh conditions in the desert, a place without water and really without anything,” said Dr Erez Ben-Yosef, professor of archaeology at Tel Aviv University and director of the Central Timna Valley Project, an interdisciplinary research project about the region’s history of copper production.

以色列特拉维夫大学(Tel Aviv University)考古学教授本约瑟夫博士(Dr Erez Ben-Yosef)说:"矿工们当时的工作环境非常恶劣,因为地处沙漠,没有水,周围也是一片贫瘠。" 本约瑟夫博士任"提姆纳中央山谷项目"的负责人。这个项目是专门研究该地区铜制造历史的跨学科研究项目。

This mine, and the others in the area, follow the horizontal turquoise veins of copper that snake through the ground south of the Dead Sea in both Israel and Jordan. Thousands of years ago, miners chiselled out this copper ore, carried it out of the mines, then heated it to extract a shiny metal that was used to make beads, pendants and other decorative items. It was among the earliest examples of people deriving metal from stone, Dr Ben-Yosef said, and thanks to the dry climate, Timna’s are among the world’s best-preserved ancient mines.

这个区域的矿场分布沿着铜矿石呈蓝绿色的水平纹路,自南向北,蛇形蜿蜒直至以色列与约旦交界的死海南部附近。几千年前,工人们将矿石从岩壁上凿下来,然后人工运出矿井,再冶炼出一种闪闪发光的金属,制作成珠子、吊坠等装饰品。这是迄今发现人类最早从石头中提取金属的实例。本约瑟夫教授说,提姆纳是目前世界上保存得最好的古采矿群。这主要得益于当地干燥的气候。

“You can see everything. You can touch things left at Timna 3,000 and 4,000 years ago,” he added.

他补充说,"你几乎能在这里看到一切,甚至能触摸到三四千年前提姆纳采矿场里遗留下来的东西。"

Aside from mines like this, some flint tools and heaps of rock left from the smelting process, these early miners didn’t leave much behind. “We know very little about these first miners,” Dr Ben-Yosef said. “We don’t have names for them. We just know that they were local people working with very simple stone tools.”

除了采铜矿遗迹,我们还能见识到古人冶炼金属时用的燧石、石凿等,但数量并不多。本约瑟夫教授介绍说:"关于这些最早期的矿工们,我们目前已知的信息很少。我们无从得知他们的姓名,只知道他们是当地人,做工时使用的工具是非常简陋的石器。"

The caverns and shafts throughout Timna National Park reveal thousands of years of mining history. Evidence has been found linking these mines to Ancient Egypt’s New Kingdom, which existed from the 16th through the early 11th Centuries BC. Copper from here enriched the series of Ramses pharaohs who used it for everything from weapons to jewellery. However, further evidence shows that mining here reached its peak several hundred years later. High-resolution radiocarbon dating of seeds and other organic matter left in the miners’ work camps indicates the mines were active between the 11th and 9th Centuries BC, lending credence to theories that Timna was the source of copper for the biblical King Solomon’s temple in Jerusalem.

提姆纳国家公园里星罗密布的矿洞与矿井向我们展现了采矿业几千年来的历史。考古学家有证据表明,这些矿场与始于公元前16世纪终于前11世纪的古埃及新王国时期也有关联。这里开采的铜矿资源被这时期各朝的法老们广泛使用,制作成武器、珠宝装饰品等。同时也有证据表明,这里的采矿业是在埃及新王国时期的几百年后才发展至顶峰的。通过高像素的放射性碳定年法,专家对矿工们居住的工作棚里留下来的食物种子和其他有机物进行年份推断,发现这些采矿场最为活跃的时期是公元前十一世纪至公元前九世纪。因此有人推论说,提姆纳矿区是建造耶路撒冷所罗门王圣殿所用铜金属的来源。

And until recently, experts assumed the gruelling manual labour had been done by slaves. But archaeological findings over the last few years, including high-quality dyed fabrics preserved by the dry climate, indicate that the metalworkers were employed rather than enslaved. Remains of sheep and goat bones as well as date and olive pits also suggest that the workers ate a rich diet of foods not usually found in the desert.

直到近期之前,专家们都认为指出这么艰辛的手工采矿作业应该是由奴隶完成的。但几年前,考古学家在此地的发现,包括因气候干燥而被完好留存下来的矿工先前使用的染布织物,说明这些矿工是被雇佣,而并非被奴役的。同时,采矿场里山羊等牲畜的骨头遗骸和遗留的枣核、橄榄核也说明这些工人的膳食丰盛,这些都不是沙漠里常见的食物。

By this time, people had learned how to shape the copper found in Timna’s mines into tools and weapons, and how to mix it with tin to create bronze, a much stronger material. Evidence of this early metalworking is on display in museums around the world. Tel Aviv’s Eretz Israel Museum has the largest collection of artefacts from Timna, including copper chisels used for mining and a bronze serpent found in a local temple.

那时的人们就知道如何将提姆纳矿区采集的铜金属做成工具和武器,也掌握了混合铜和锡冶炼出更为坚硬的青铜的技艺。有关早期的金属加工术的历史记录在目前世界各地的博物馆都能够看到。特拉维夫大学的埃雷兹以色列博物馆目前馆藏最多从提姆纳矿区收集来的文物。展品中还包括挖矿用的铜质凿子和一条从当地的寺庙发现的铜蛇等。

“When you see the things they made, then you understand why all this work in the mines was worth it,” Dr Ben Yosef said.

本约瑟夫博士说:"亲眼见过他们制作的东西,就知道了矿井下工人们的千辛万苦都凝结在里面了。"

The mines can be accessed during the park’s opening hours without a guide or any previous arrangements. While the cavern offered a cool respite from the heat, I was a relieved to reach the end. Climbing the ladder back to the desert’s scorched surface, it felt good to stand up straight again.

在公园开放时间内,就算没有向导或是提前预约,游客也可以进矿井随意参观。虽说井里比外面稍阴凉一些,但是参观结束我还是长吁一口气。我沿着梯子爬回地面。即使外头沙漠十分灼热,头顶似火骄阳,可双脚直立的感觉简直太好了。

I continued on the trail to peer down a nearly 3,000-year-old precipice-like mine shaft, catching a glimpse of the niches scored by miners as they climbed in and out. A little way further along a dry desert streambed, entrances to dozens of mines looked like turquoise-striped pockmarks along the rocky walls. All around me, colourful ridges rose several storeys as if reaching for the fiery desert sun. The landscape was breathtaking, to say the least, but not nearly as fascinating as what some of the world’s earliest miners had left behind.

我沿着小道前行时,往下窥视一个有着三千多年历史的悬崖般陡峭的矿井,看到了那些矿工标注好的上下矿井时用来攀援的石缝。顺沙漠干旱河床再往前走一阵,就能看见岩壁上像孔雀绿条纹状斑痕一般的几十座矿井的入口。站在沙漠中,四周色彩艳丽的山峦耸立,像是正朝着火热的沙漠之日延伸而上。怎么说这风景也称得上是美到令人窒息,但比起世界上最早的矿工们留下的宝藏却还差得太远。

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