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冰冻坟场:南极洲死者的伤心故事

更新时间:2018-10-3 9:03:14 来源:千亿千亿国际娱乐官网 作者:佚名

A frozen graveyard: The sad tales of antarctica's deaths
冰冻坟场:南极洲死者的伤心故事

In the bleak, almost pristine land at the edge of the world, there are the frozen remains of human bodies – and each one tells a story of humanity’s relationship with this inhospitable continent.

在位于世界边缘的这片寒冷刺骨和几近原始的土地上有人类的冰冻遗体,每一具遗体背后都有一个故事,讲述着人类和这块并不那么热情好客的大陆之间的关系。

Even with all our technology and knowledge of the dangers of Antarctica, it can remain deadly for anyone who goes there. Inland, temperatures can plummet to nearly -90C (-130F). In some places, winds can reach 200mph (322km/h). And the weather is not the only risk.

即使具有所有的技术和对南极洲危险的知识,这块土地对于任何踏上它的人来说都会是致命的。南极内陆的温度可以陡降到零下90摄氏度(零下130华氏度)。有些地方的风速可以达到200英里/时(322公里/时)。而天气并不是唯一的风险。

Many bodies of scientists and explorers who perished in this harsh place are beyond reach of retrieval. Some are discovered decades or more than a century later. But many that were lost will never be found, buried so deep in ice sheets or crevasses that they will never emerge – or they are headed out towards the sea within creeping glaciers and calving ice.

在这个自然环境极度恶劣的大陆,殒命的许多科学家和探险家,他们的遗体将很难寻回。有些遗体直到几十年或者一百多年后才被人发现。但有很多失踪者的遗体将永远无法找到,他们埋葬于冰盖或者冰隙裂缝深处,恐再也不会出现,或者他们的遗体会随着缓慢移动崩解的冰川最后葬身于大海。

The stories behind these deaths range from unsolved mysteries to freak accidents. In the second of our new series Frozen Continent, BBC Future explored what these events reveal about life on the planet's most inhospitable landmass.

这些死者背后的故事中既有未解之谜又有诡异事故。在我们的全新系列冰冻大陆(Frozen Continent)的第二期节目中,英国广播公司未来栏目(BBC Future)探索了这些事件的真相, 披露了地球上这最不适宜人类生存的大陆上的生命形态。

1800s: Mystery of the Chilean bones

十九世纪:智利人的疑骨谜团

At Livingston Island, among the South Shetlands off the Antarctic Peninsula, a human skull and femur have been lying near the shore for 175 years. They are the oldest human remains ever found in Antarctica.

利文斯顿岛(Livingston Island)是南极半岛(Antarctic Peninsula)外的南设得兰群岛(South Shetlands)其中一个岛屿,在那里,一块人体头盖骨和股骨长眠于岸边已经有175年了。这是在南极洲发现的年代最为久远的人体残骸。

The bones were discovered on the beach in the 1980s. Chilean researchers found that they belonged to a woman who died when she was about 21 years old. She was an indigenous person from southern Chile, 1,000km (620 miles) away.

遗骨于20世纪80年代在海滩上被人发现。智利研究者发现,这些遗骨属于一位女性,她在大约21岁时死亡。她是1000公里(620英里)外的智利南部土著居民。

Analysis of the bones suggested that she died between 1819 and 1825. The earlier end of that range would put her among the very first people to have been in Antarctica.

遗骨分析显示,她死于1819年至1825年之间。若从这一时间区段较早的那一端1819年来算,她应该是最早踏足南极洲的人之一。

The question is, how did she get there? The traditional canoes of the indigenous Chileans couldn’t have supported her on such a long voyage through what can be incredibly rough seas.

问题是,她是如何到达那里的?智利土著居民的传统独木舟不可能承载她去经历这段惊涛骇浪的遥远旅程。

“There’s no evidence for an independent Amerindian presence in the South Shetlands,” says Michael Pearson, an Antarctic heritage consultant and independent researcher. “It’s not a journey you’d make in a bark canoe.”

皮尔逊(Michael Pearson)是一位南极遗产顾问兼独立研究员,他说:“没有证据表明南设得兰群岛上曾出现过独立的印第安人。这不是仅凭一个树皮做的独木舟就可以完成的旅程。”

The original interpretation by the Chilean researchers was that she was an indigenous guide to the sealers travelling from the northern hemisphere to the Antarctic islands that had been newly discovered by William Smith in 1819. But women taking part in expeditions to the far south in those early days was virtually unheard of.

智利研究者们最初给出的解释是:她是那些从北半球来到南极岛屿捕猎海豹者的当地向导,这些南极岛屿刚由英国探险家威廉‧史密斯(William Smith)于1819年新发现。然而在最早时期来到地球最南端探险的人士中却从未听说过有女性参与。

Sealers did have a close relationship with the indigenous people of southern Chile, says Melisa Salerno, an archaeologist of the Argentinean Scientific and Technical Research Council (Conicet). Sometimes they would exchange seal skins with each other. It’s not out of the question that they traded expertise and knowledge, too. But the two cultures’ interactions weren’t always friendly.

阿根廷科技研究院(Argentinean Scientific and Technical Research Council,简称Conicet)的考古学家萨勒诺(Melisa Salerno)说,当时的海豹捕猎者的确和智利南部的土著居民关系密切。有时他们还会彼此交换海豹皮。他们之间交换专业技能和知识,也并不是不可能的事情。然而这两种文化之间的互动却并不总是友好的。

“Sometimes it was a violent situation,” says Salerno. “The sealers could just take a woman from one beach and later leave her far away on another.”

萨勒诺说,“有时会有暴力发生。海豹捕猎者可能会将一名女性从一处海滩上带走,接着把她丢到另一处遥远的海滩上。”

A lack of surviving logs and journals from the early ships sailing south to Antarctica makes it even more difficult to trace this woman’s history.

由于早期南极洲探险船只的航海日志和个人日记留存在世的很少,这使得人们更难去探究这名女性的经历。

Her story is unique among the early human presence in Antarctica. A woman who, by all the usual accounts, shouldn’t have been there – but somehow she was. Her bones mark the start of human activity on Antarctica, and the unavoidable loss of life that comes with trying to occupy this inhospitable continent.

她的故事在那些早期踏足南极洲的人当中是独特的。按照各方面通常的记录,一般来说,应该不会有什么女子到过南设得兰群岛,然而不知为何她却真的到了那里。她的遗骨标志着人类在南极洲活动的开始,而与这不可避免的生命陨落相生相伴的是人类为占领这块并不适宜人类生存的大陆所付出的努力。

29 March 1912: Scott’s South Pole expedition crew

1912年3月29号:史考特(Scott)的南极探险队成员

Robert Falcon Scott’s team of British explorers reached the South Pole on 17 January 1912, just three weeks after the Norwegian team led by Roald Amundsen had departed from the same spot.

罗伯特‧史考特(Robert Falcon Scott)的英国探险队于1912年1月17号抵达南极极点,而就在三个礼拜之前,由亚孟森(Roald Amundsen)带队的挪威科考团刚刚从同一地点启程离开。

The British group’s morale was crushed when they discovered that they had not arrived first. Soon after, things would get much worse.

英国探险队的士气受挫,因为他们发现自己并不是第一个到达南极极点的。但很快,事态的发展更是灾难性的。

Attaining the pole was a feat to test human endurance, and Scott had been under huge pressure. As well as dealing with the immediate challenges of the harsh climate and lack of natural resources like wood for building, he had a crew of more than 60 men to lead. More pressure came from the high hopes of his colleagues back home.

来到南极点是一项壮举,可以检验人类的耐力,而史考特则承受了巨大的压力。既要应对眼下恶劣气候的挑战和自然资源(如建筑木材)的匮乏,又要带领60多人的探险队伍。更大的压力则来自于人们希望他的探险队能够平安回家。

“They mean to do or die – that is the spirit in which they are going to the Antarctic,” Leonard Darwin, a president of the Royal Geographical Society and son of Charles Darwin, said in a speech at the time.

英国皇家地理学会的主席,提出进化论的查尔斯·达尔文(Charles Darwin)的儿子伦纳德·达尔文(Leonard Darwin)在当时的一次演讲中说:“他们有着破釜沉舟的决心,要么光荣凯旋,要么客死他乡,正是这种精神指引他们踏上南极大陆。”

“Captain Scott is going to prove once again that the manhood of the nation is not dead… the self-respect of the whole nation is certainly increased by such adventures as this,” he said.

他说,“史考特队长将要再次证明,这个国家的铁血男儿气概是不灭的……整个国家的自尊无疑被这样一次历险强化了。”

Scott was not impervious to the expectations. “He was a very rounded, human character,” says Max Jones, a historian of heroism and polar exploration at the University of Manchester. “In his journals, you find he’s racked with doubts and anxieties about whether he’s up to the task and that makes him more appealing. He had failings and weaknesses too.”

史考特并非对这些期望无动于衷。马克斯·琼斯(Max Jones)是曼彻斯特大学(University of Manchester)研究英雄主义和极地探险的一位历史学家,他说:“他有非常丰满立体的人物性格。在他的日志中你会发现,他被是否要直面任务的怀疑和焦虑所折磨,这也让他更有魅力。他同样有缺陷和弱点。”

Despite his worries and doubts, the mindset of “do or die” drove the team to take risks that might seem alien to us now.

尽管他有担忧也有怀疑,然而"要么成功要么死亡"的精神还是驱动着这支队伍去冒险犯难,而这些危险对如今的我们来说或许有些陌生。

On the team’s return from the pole, Edgar Evans died first, in February. Then Lawrence Oates. He had considered himself a burden, thinking the team could not return home with him holding them back. "I am just going outside and may be some time," he said on 17 March.

队伍离开南极点回程时,埃文斯(Edgar Evans)便在二月份第一个辞世。然后是奥茨(Lawrence Oates)。他把自己视为队友们的负担,认为自己会拖慢队友的行程,有了他全队是回不去的。他在3月17号说,“我只是到外面去一下,这可能要一会儿。”然后他走出帐篷,迎接他的死亡。

Perhaps he had not realised how close the rest of the group were to death. The bodies of Oates and Evans were never found, but Scott, Edward Wilson and Henry Bowers were discovered by a search party several months after their deaths. They had died on 29 March 1912, according to the date in Scott’s diary entry. The search party covered them with snow and left them where they lay.

也许奥茨没有意识到其他队员离死亡已很近。奥茨和埃文斯的尸体一直没有找到,然而史考特、威尔逊(Edward Wilson)和鲍尔斯(Henry Bowers)的尸体在他们死后数月之后被一支搜救队发现。据史考特一篇日记中的日期记载,他们死于1912年3月29号 。搜救队用雪将他们就地掩埋。

“I do not think human beings ever came through such a month as we have come through,” Scott wrote in his diary’s final pages. The team knew they were within 18km (11 miles) of the last food depot, with the supplies that could have saved them. But they were confined to a tent for days, growing weaker, trapped by a fierce blizzard.

史考特在日记本的最后几页纸上写道,“我认为人们从来没有经历过我们这一个月所经历的事情。”这支探险队明白,他们距离最后的食物存放点有18公里(11英里)路程,储存的食物可以拯救他们。但是他们被困在帐篷中长达数日,身体逐渐虚弱,猛烈的暴风雪使他们寸步难行。

“They were prepared to risk their lives and they saw that as legitimate. You can view that as part of a mindset of imperial masculinity, tied up with enduring hardship and hostile environments,” says Jones. “I’m not saying that they had a death wish, but I think that they were willing to die.”

琼斯说,“他们准备冒生命危险,他们认为这合情合理。你可以把这看作是大英帝国男子气概思维模式的一部分,这使他们愿意去经历艰难险阻和恶劣的环境。我不是说他们希望去死,但我认为他们愿意为冒险而死。”

14 October 1965: Jeremy Bailey, David Wild and John Wilson

1965年10月14号:杰里米·贝利(Jeremy Bailey)、怀尔德(David Wild)和威尔逊(John Wilson)

Four men were riding a Muskeg tractor and its sledges near the Heimefront Mountains, to the east of their base at Halley Research Station in East Antarctica, close to the Weddell Sea. The Muskeg was a heavy-duty vehicle designed to haul people and supplies over long distances on the ice. A team of dogs ran behind.

四名男子正开着一辆马斯卡格(Muskeg)拖拉机,并拖着雪橇行进在黑迈弗朗特山脉(Heimefront Mountains)附近,这里位于他们在东南极洲(East Antarctica)哈雷研究站(Halley Research Station)基地的东面,靠近威德尔海(Weddell Sea)。这辆马斯卡格是一部结实的交通工具,用于冰面上人和物资的长距离运输。雪橇犬队则在后面奔跑紧跟。

Three of the men were in the cab. The fourth, John Ross, sat behind on the sledge at the back, close to the huskies. Jeremy (Jerry) Bailey, a scientist measuring the depth of the ice beneath the tractor, was driving. He and David (Dai) Wild, a surveyor, and John Wilson, a doctor, were scanning the ice ahead. Snow obscured much of the small, flat windscreen. The group had been travelling all day, taking turns to warm up in the cab or sit out back on the sledge.

他们当中有三个人在驾驶室里。还有一人是罗斯(John Ross),他坐在车后面的雪橇上,离哈士奇雪橇犬很近。贝利是一位科学家,他测量拖拉机下面冰层的厚度,车辆由他驾驶。他和测量员怀尔德以及医生威尔逊扫描着前方的冰面体。又小又平的挡风玻璃一大部分被雪花模糊了。四人小组行进了一整天,轮流在驾驶室暖身或坐回到后面的雪橇上吹冷风。

Ross was staring out at the vast ice, snow and Stella Group mountains. At about 8:30, the dogs alongside the sledge stopped running. The sledge had ground to a halt.

罗斯盯着沿途巨大的冰体、大雪以及斯特拉群山(Stella Group mountains)。八点半左右,在雪橇两旁奔驰的犬队突然停止奔跑。雪橇停了下来。

Ross, muffled with a balaclava and two anoraks, had heard nothing. He turned to see that the Muskeg was gone. Ahead, the first sledge was leaning down into the ice. Ross ran up to it to find it had wedged in the top of a large crevasse running directly across their course. The Muskeg itself had fallen about 30m (100ft) into the crevasse. Down below, its tracks were wedged vertically against one ice wall, and the cab had been flattened hard against the other.

罗斯裹在一顶盔式大绒帽和两件带帽夹克里面,什么都没听见。他转过头发现马斯卡格不见了。前面的第一个雪橇向下弯到了冰层里面。罗斯朝它跑过去,发现它已经插在了一条冰隙大裂缝顶上,这条冰隙径直横在他们行进的方向上。马斯卡格则掉入冰隙里面大约30米(100英尺)的位置。裂缝底下,拖拉机整个被嵌了进去,履带垂直地贴着一面冰墙,压扁了的驾驶室贴着另一面冰墙。

Ross shouted down. There was no reply from the three men in the cab. After about 20 minutes of shouting, Ross heard a reply. The exchange, as he recorded it from memory soon after the event, was brief:

罗斯向下面呼喊着。驾驶室内的三个人没有回应。喊了大概20分钟之后,罗斯听到了一声回应。事过后,罗斯按照自己的回忆把他俩的对话记录了下来。对话简单明了:

Ross: Dai?

罗斯:戴(Dai)?

Bailey: Dai’s dead. It’s me.

贝利:戴死了。是我。

Ross: Is that John or Jerry?

罗斯:是约翰(John)还是杰里(Jerry)?

Bailey: Jerry.

贝利:杰里。

Ross: How is John?

罗斯:约翰怎么样?

Bailey: He’s a goner, mate.

贝利:他快不行了,兄弟。

Ross: What about yourself?

罗斯:你自己怎么样?

Bailey: I’m all smashed up.

贝利:摔得不像样了。

Ross: Can you move about at all or tie a rope round yourself?

罗斯:你还能动不,或者在身上系一圈绳子?

Bailey: I’m all smashed up.

贝利:我已经摔得不像样了。

Ross tried climbing down into the crevasse, but the descent was difficult. Bailey told him not to risk it, but Ross tried anyway. After several attempts, Bailey stopped responding to Ross’s calls. Ross heard a scream from the crevasse. After that, Bailey didn’t respond.

罗斯试着向下爬进冰隙,但是往下爬太困难了。贝利让他不要冒险,但罗斯还是试着爬过去。试了几次之后,贝利对罗斯的喊话停止了回应。罗斯听到冰隙里传来一声尖叫。在那之后,贝利再也没有回应了。

Crevasses – deep clefts in the ice stretching down hundreds of feet – are serious threats while travelling across the Antarctic. On 14 October 1965, there had been strong winds kicking up drifts and spreading snow far over the landscape, according to reports on the accident held at the British Antarctic Survey archives. This concealed the top of the chasms, and crucially, the thin blue line in the ice ahead of each drop that would have warned the men to stop.

冰隙,冰川中的断层,是往往向下伸展数百英尺很深的裂缝,这是南极洲行路途中最可怕的危险。英国南极调查局(British Antarctic Survey)的档案对于这次事故的报告显示,1965年10月14号这一天,有强风将积雪吹起,掩盖了大范围的冰面,从而也掩盖了冰隙露在冰面的裂缝,而这条细长的冰隙蓝线攸关生死,因为每次下坡之前,看见这道蓝线会提醒人们要停下来,小心跨越。

“You can imagine – there’s a bit of drift about, and there’s bits of ice on the windscreen, your fingers are bloody cold, and you think it’s about time to stop anyway,” says Rod Rhys Jones, one of the expedition party who had not gone on that trip with the Muskeg. He points to the crevassed area the Muskeg had been driving over, on a map of the continent spread over his coffee table, littered with books on the Antarctic.

罗德·里斯·琼斯(Rod Rhys Jones)是那次探险队的一员,但他没有参加那次马斯卡格行程。他说:“你可以想象,那时正在飘雪,挡风玻璃上有一块块的冰,你的手指冷得没办法,你认为无论如何是时候停下来了。”他指着自己咖啡桌上一张铺开的南极洲地图上马斯卡格曾经驶过的冰隙区域,桌上还杂乱地放着一些讲南极洲的书籍。

“You’re driving along over the ice and thumping and bumping and banging. You don’t see the little blue line.”

“你正在冰面上驱车行进,巨响、颠簸、撞击。你没看到这条细细的蓝线。”

Jones questions whether the team had been given adequate training for the hazards of travel in Antarctica. They were young men, mostly fresh out of university. Many of them had little experience in harsh physical conditions. Much of their time preparing for life in Antarctica was spent learning to use the scientific equipment they would need, not training them in how to avoid accidents on the ice.

琼斯怀疑这四人队伍是否接受了充分的训练以应对在南极洲行路途中的危险。他们是年轻人,多数是刚刚毕业的大学生。他们当中的许多人几乎都没有生活在恶劣自然条件下的经验。他们把准备南极洲生活的大部分时间都用在了学习使用将会用到的科学装备上,而不是训练自己如何避免冰上事故。

Each accident in Antarctica has slowly led to changes in the way people travelled and were trained. Reports filed after the incident recommended several ways to make travel through crevassed regions safer, from adapting the vehicle, to new ways to hitch them together.

在南极洲,每发生一次事故都会慢慢地改变人们行路和训练的方式。事故之后呈交的报告提议了若干种方式来保障冰隙区域的安全旅行,包括改进交通工具,以及采用新方法将各种交通工具连系在一起等。

August 1982: Ambrose Morgan, Kevin Ockleton and John Coll

1982年8月:摩根(Ambrose Morgan)、奥克尔顿(Kevin Ockleton)和科尔(John Coll)

The three men set out over the ice for an expedition to a nearby island in the depths of the Antarctic winter.

这三个人在结冰的海上动身前往附近一个岛屿探险,此时正值南极洲的深冬时节。

The sea ice was firm, and they made it easily to Petermann Island. The southern aurora was visible in the sky, unusually bright and strong enough to wipe out communications. The team reached the island safely and camped out at a hut near the shore.

海冰很结实,他们轻而易举地来到了彼得曼岛(Petermann Island)。南极光在天际清晰可见,异常明亮,强度之高足以令通讯中断。一行人安全上岛,在海岸附近的一个木屋里安营扎寨。

Soon after reaching the shore, a large storm blew in that, by the next day, entirely destroyed the sea ice. The group was stranded, but concern among the party was low. There was enough food in the hut to last three people more than a month.

上岸后不久,一场巨大的风暴来袭,到第二天的时候,风暴已将海冰完全摧毁。三人被困住了,但是他们并不太担心。木屋中食物充足,足以让三个人维持一个月以上。

In the next few days, the sea ice failed to reform as storms swept and disrupted the ice in the channel.

在接下来的几天里,海冰无法重新凝结成片,因为风暴肆虐,破坏了航道中的冰。

There were no books or papers in the hut, and contact with the outside world was limited to scheduled radio transmissions to the base. Soon, it had been two weeks. The transmissions were kept brief, as the batteries in their radios were getting weaker and weaker. The team grew restless. Gentoo and Adelie penguins surrounded the hut. They might have looked endearing, but their smell soon began to bother the men.

木屋中没有书也没有纸,和外界的联络仅限于定期无线电传输到基地。不久便过了两个礼拜。与基地的无线电通讯要保持简明扼要,因为无线电设备的电量越来越少。三人开始焦躁不安。巴布亚(Gentoo)企鹅和阿德利(Adelie)企鹅包围了木屋。它们或许看上去很讨人喜欢,然而它们身上的味道不久便开始让这三人感到恶心作呕。

Things got worse. The team got diarrhoea, as it turned out some of the food in the hut was much older than they had thought. The stench of the penguins didn’t make them feel any better. They killed and ate a few to boost their supplies.

事件变得更加糟糕。三人开始腹泻,原来木屋中的一些食物存放得实在太久,超过他们的想象。企鹅散发的臭味没有令他们感到有任何好转。他们杀死了一些企鹅补充食物供给。

The men waited with increasing frustration, complaining of boredom on their radio transmissions to base. On Friday 13 August 1982, they were seen through a telescope, waving back to the main base. Radio batteries were running low. The sea ice had reformed again, providing a tantalising hope for escape.

队员们在日益沮丧的心情中等待着救援,他们在发给基地的无线电中抱怨这里的无聊。1982年8月13号这一天,三人被基地的望远镜发现,他们向基地的人挥手回应。这时无线电设备电量已不足。但海冰再次恢复凝结,为他们提供了一丝逃生的诱人希望。

Two days later, on Sunday 15 August, the group didn’t check in on the radio at the scheduled time. Then another large storm blew in.

两天后的8月15号是个礼拜天,三人没有在定时通话时间检查无线电。然后另一场大的暴风来临。

The men at the base climbed up to a high point where they could see the island. All the sea ice was gone again, taken out by the storm.

基地的人们爬到了高处,在那儿他们能够看到这个小岛,发现所有的海冰再次被暴风摧毁。

“These guys had done something which we all did – go out on a little trip to the island,” says Pete Salino, who had been on the main base at the time. The three men were never seen again.

萨利诺(Pete Salino)当时就在主基地。他说:“这几个小伙子做了我们大家都做过的事情,去岛上来个小型旅游。”但他们从此再也未能见到这三个年轻人。

There were very strong currents around the island. Reliable, thick ice formed relatively rarely, Salino recalls. The way they tested whether the ice would hold them was primitive – they would whack it with a wooden stick tipped with metal to see if it would smash.

萨利诺回忆说,彼得曼岛周围环流非常强劲,因此很难形成可靠的厚冰层,他们用来测试冰层是否可以承受人体重量的方法很原始,用末端有金属的木棍狠狠地敲击冰面,看冰面是否会被敲破。

Even after an extensive search, the bodies were never found. Salino suspects the men went out onto the ice when it reformed and either got stuck or weren’t able to turn back when the storm blew in.

即使做了地毯式的搜寻,三人的遗体迄今一直没有找到。萨利诺怀疑,这三个队员可能在海冰恢复凝结时候走上了冰面,要么就是被困住了,要么就是风暴来袭的时候没法掉头回转到岸上。

“It does sound mad now, sitting in a cosy room in Surrey,” Salino says. “When we used to go out, there was always a risk of falling through, but you’d always go prepared. We’d always have spare clothing in a sealed bag. We all accepted the risk and felt that it could have been any of us.”

萨利诺说,“坐在萨里舒适的房间里,这一切听上去确实很疯狂。我们已习惯外出的时候,总会有掉下去的风险,但是你得一直做好准备。我们总是会在密封包里放上备用衣物。我们都接受了风险存在的事实,我们也觉得危险可能会降临到我们任何一个人身上。”

Legacy of death

死亡留给人们的遗产

For those who experience the loss of colleagues and friends in Antarctica, grieving can be uniquely difficult. When a friend disappears or a body cannot be recovered, the typical human rituals of death – a burial, a last goodbye – elude those left behind.

对于那些在南极洲痛失同事和朋友的人来说,悲痛是格外困难的。当朋友失踪或是遗体无法寻回的时候,人类为死亡而举行的典型仪式——葬礼,即向死者的最后道别,将会使生存者不知所措。

Clifford Shelley, a British geophysicist based at Argentine Islands off the Antarctic Peninsula in the late 1970s, lost friends who were climbing the nearby peak Mount Peary in 1976. It was thought that those men – Geoffrey Hargreaves, Michael Walker and Graham Whitfield – were trapped in an avalanche. Signs of their camp were found by an air search, but their bodies were never recovered.

谢力(Clifford Shelley)是一位英国地球物理学家,他于20世纪70年代后期一直在靠近南极半岛海岸的阿根廷群岛(Argentine Islands)的科学基地工作。他在1976年失去了几位朋友,他们当时正在攀登附近的佩里山(Mount Peary)山峰。人们认为那几名男子—哈格里夫斯(Geoffrey Hargreaves)、沃克(Michael Walker)和惠特菲尔德(Graham Whitfield)遭遇到雪崩。他们宿营的遗迹被一次空中搜救发现,然而他们的遗体却一直没能找回。

“You just wait and wait, but there’s nothing. Then you just sort of lose hope,” Shelley says.

谢力说,“你等啊等,但却杳无音讯。然后你就有失去了希望。”

Even when the body is recovered, the demanding nature of life and work on Antarctica can make it a hard place to grieve. Ron Pinder, a radio operator in the South Orkneys in the late 1950s and early 1960s, still mourns someone who slipped from a cliff on Signy Island while tagging birds in 1961. The body of his friend, Roger Filer, was found at the foot of a 20ft (6m) cliff below the nests where he was thought to have been tagging birds. His body was buried on the island.

即使当遗体被找到,在南极洲生活和工作的严苛条件都使得悲伤之情也难以表达。平德(Ron Pinder)是20世纪50年代后期及60年代初期在南奥克尼群岛(South Orkneys)工作的一名无线电操作员。他至今仍然为1961年一位在西格尼岛(Signy Island)为鸟类做标记时从悬崖边坠下的朋友感到悲痛。他的朋友法勒(Roger Filer)的遗体在鸟巢下面20英尺(6米)的悬崖脚下被人发现,人们认为他在那儿一直为鸟类做标记。他的遗体葬在了岛上。

“It is 57 years ago now. It is in the distant past. But it affects me more now than it did then. Life was such that you had to get on with it,” Pinder says.

平德说,“离现在已有57年了。这件事发生在遥远的过去。但如今对我的影响胜过当时。你必须得同生命好好相处。”

The same rings true for Shelley. “I don’t think we did really process it,” he says. “It remains at the back of your mind. But it’s certainly a mixed feeling, because Antarctica is superbly beautiful, both during the winter and the summer. It’s the best place to be and we were doing the things we wanted to do.”

对此谢力也感同身受。他说,“我认为我们没有真正地处理好生命,此事始终萦绕在你心中。然而这是一种复杂的感情,因为南极洲非常美丽,无论冬天还是夏天。南极是最好的去处,我们也一直做着我们想做的事情。”

These deaths have led to changes in how people work in Antarctica. As a result, the people there today can live more safely on this hazardous, isolated continent. Although terrible incidents still happen, much has been learned from earlier fatalities.

这些死亡事故导致了人们在南极洲工作方式的改变。今天,那儿的人们可以在那片危险偏远的陆地上更安全地生活。尽管可怕的事情仍有发生,但人们已经从早期的死亡事故中学到了很多。

For the friends and families of the dead, there is an ongoing effort to make sure their lost loved ones are not forgotten. Outside the Scott Polar Research Institute in Cambridge, UK, two high curved oak pillars lean towards one another, gently touching at the top. It is half of a monument to the dead, erected by the British Antarctic Monument Trust, set up by Rod Rhys Jones and Brian Dorsett-Bailey, Jeremy’s brother, to recognise and honour those who died in Antarctica. The other half of the monument is a long slither of metal leaning slightly towards the sea at Port Stanley in the Falkland Islands, where many of the researchers set off for the last leg of their journey to Antarctica.

对于死者的亲友来说,他们还在不断努力,以确保他们逝去的挚爱不会被世界遗忘。在英国剑桥(Cambridge)的史考特极地研究所外面,两根高高的弧形橡木柱子互相倚靠,两根柱子的顶端相互温柔爱抚。这是向死者致敬的纪念碑的其中一半,由英国南极纪念碑信托基金 (British Antarctic Monument Trust)所立,这一信托基金由罗德·里斯·琼斯和布瑞恩·多塞特·贝利(Brian Dorsett-Bailey)(杰里米之兄)设立,以向那些在南极洲去世的人们致谢并表达敬意。纪念碑的另一半在福克兰群岛(Falkland Islands)的斯坦利港(Port Stanley),是一条向上延伸的金属针状物,对着斯坦利港外的大海微微倾斜。南极研究者中的很多人都从这个港口出发,去完成他们南极洲旅途的最后一段行程。

Viewed from one end so they align, the oak pillars curve away from each other, leaving a long tapering empty space between them. The shape of that void is perfectly filled by the tall steel shard mounted on a plinth on the other side of the world. It is a physical symbol that spans the hemispheres, connecting home with the vast and wild continent that drew these scientists away for the last time.

从剑桥的两条橡木柱子的一端看过去,柱子弯曲,彼此隔离,之间留出一块逐渐变细的长形空间。这一空间的形状恰好能被被放置于世界另一端基座上高高的钢铁针状物所填满。这是一个跨越东西半球的物理象征,将探险者的家乡与这块巨大而荒凉的大陆相连在一起。正是这块大陆吸引着这些科学家们最后一次离开故土,从此再没有回来。

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