您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 科学 >> 正文

新西兰动物保育 为了保护的杀戮

更新时间:2018-11-5 21:04:50 来源:千亿千亿国际娱乐官网 作者:佚名

Killing for conservation
新西兰动物保育 为了保护的杀戮

New Zealand’s conservation plan that is focused on killing.

新西兰的动物保育计划以杀戮为保护手段。

The goal of most conservation efforts is to prevent certain animal groups from dying out. However, in 2016, New Zealand’s then Prime Minister John Key announced that the goal for New Zealand was to become predator free by 2050. The initiative aims to eradicate the entire population of invasive predators.

大部分保育工作的目标是防止动物种群灭绝,但2016年,时任新西兰总理约翰•基(John Key)却表示,新西兰的保育目标是到2050年消除所有外来的掠食类动物。

On the surface, this might seem like an odd approach. However, the goal is to protect the country’s native birds, including the national bird the kiwi and the kakapo. Since these flightless birds evolved in a predator free environment, they haven’t adapted to protect themselves. Their populations have been critically reduced, with the kakapo now declared critically endangered.

表面上看,这个做法似乎有点另类,但其目的是在于保护本地鸟类,包括新西兰的国鸟鹬鸵,以及鸮鹦鹉。这些鸟不会飞,一直生活在没有掠食动物的环境里,还不能保护自己。它们的数量已然大幅下降,鸮鹦鹉已经成了濒危物种。

Before other predators arrived with humans, New Zealand only had one mammal predator, the New Zealand lesser short-tailed bat. However, the country is now home to three species that are devastating the local bird population; rats, stoats and possums. Stoats and possums were introduced to the country on purpose, possums to establish a fur trade in 1837 and stoats in 1879 to combat rabbit destruction of sheep pastures. Unfortunately, they’ve had a severe negative impact on the native avian population, the call to arms is a drastic solution to rid the islands of these damaging pests.

在人类带来其他掠食动物之前,新西兰本地只有一种:新西兰短尾蝠。但现在,有三种动物都严重威胁着本地鸟类——老鼠、白鼬和负鼠。白鼬和负鼠都是专门引进到新西兰的,1837年,为了开展毛皮生意引进了负鼠;1879年,为了解决野兔破坏羊群牧草的问题引进了白鼬。但很遗憾,这些引进物种对当地鸟类造成了严重威胁,动用武力将这些破坏性的动物赶尽杀绝是个极端的解决办法。

Predator Free 2050’s interium goal for 2025 includes the complete removal of all introduced predators from offshore island reserves and developing a scientific breakthrough to remove one of the target species completely. The Department for Conservation is basing this goal on the success they’ve had removing pests from smaller islands in New Zealand. In the 1960s, Maria Island become the first island in the world to be rat free. They have seen progress every decade since, breaking their own record in 2001 for the large island to be preadtor free when they cleared Campbell Island of rats.

“2050,零掠食者”计划(Predator Free 2050)的中期目标是,到2025年,近海海岛保护区将全面消除外来的掠食性动物,并在灭绝某一目标物种方面取得突破性的科学进展。新西兰环境保护局在更小的岛上已经成功除害,因此制定了这一目标。上世纪60年代,玛利亚岛成为世界上第一座没有老鼠的岛屿。自此环保局每十年就有新成就,2001年,坎贝尔岛灭除了老鼠,创下了大型岛屿无掠食性动物的新纪录。

The initiative has broad public support. In a survey carried out by New Zealand’s Department for Conservation, 84 per cent of the 8000 people surveyed agreed that pest species posed a significant conservation risk. The difficulty comes from the techniques used to implement this larger goal. Predator Free 2050 utilises an array of strategies to combat the predators. These range from placing of single use traps by volunteers to drops of 1080 poison on larger areas. The public opinion on these techniques isn’t quite as wholehearted, with the use of 1080 poison being protested by some groups.

这项计划得到了公众的广泛支持。根据新西兰环保局的调查,在8000名受访者中,84%的人都认为掠食性动物严重威胁了环境保育,但分歧在于大规模除害所使用的方法。“2050,零掠食者”计划采用一系列治理措施,包括志愿者投放一次性的捕杀器,以及在大面积的土地上播撒一种名为“1080”的毒药。公众对这些办法并非完全赞同,一些团体还抗议使用这种毒药。

1080 poison (Sodium fluoroacetate) is banned in most countries, due to the fact it is a high-risk to land mammals, including cats and dogs. It is still used in only six countries; these are Australia, Israel, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and New Zealand. The continued use of the poison is campaigned against by animals rights groups, although the Department for Conservation recently reaffirmed their support of the use of 1080. They stated it is necessary to deal with invasive predators in hard to access regions.

多数国家都禁止使用1080毒药(氟醋酸钠),因为它对包括猫和狗在内的陆生哺乳动物很危险。只有六个国家仍在使用:澳大利亚、以色列、日本、韩国、墨西哥和新西兰。环保局日前重申,他们同意使用1080毒药,并认为在难以进入的地区使用该药来治理外来的掠食性动物实为必须,但动物权益保护组织还是发起抗议行动,反对继续使用。

As hinted at by their interim goals, a large part of Predator Free involves investment in, and reliance on, future technologies. These potential aids aren’t universally loved, the idea of deploying Species Specific Toxins appealed to only 52 per cent of the population and only 32 per cent were happy with using gene drives. Gene drives involve manipulating the animals genes, speeding up and controlling changes within animal populations that would normally take generations. Their use is also hotly discussed in the scientific community, with some scientists saying their deployment would set a dangerous precedent and would almost certainly carry unforeseen consequences.

政府在中期目标中也表明,计划很大程度上要依靠对新技术的投资与使用。人们对这些可能会用到的辅助技术并非一致认同,52%的人认为应该使用“用于特定物种的毒素”,仅有32%的人支持基因驱动。基因驱动包括人为控制物种基因,控制物种数量,加速完成本来需要几代时间才能实现的数量变化。基因驱动也是科学界的热门话题,部分科学家称这一技术会埋下隐患,十有八九会造成不可预见的后果。

Predator Free 2050 is not without it’s critics. In an article published in the journal Conservation Letters, Wayne Linklater and Jamie Steer said, “The policy is flawed and risks diverting effort and resources from higher environmental priorities and better alternatives.” These other priorities include the reduction of habitat loss and prevention of poisoning habitats, which has caused significant damage to aquatic habitats. They also say that the ecosystems that invasive predators are now a part of are not simple predator/prey structures, but a complicated web of lots of different species. Removing one part of this system, while it might save endangered birds, could have unforeseen consequences in other parts of the chain.

“2050,零掠食者”计划也有批评之声。林克莱特(Wayne Linklater)和斯蒂尔(Jamie Steer)在《保育信札》期刊(Conservation Letters)中发表文章称,“这项计划有缺陷,人力物力没有投向更紧要的生态议题,措施办法也不够好。”紧要议题包括减少栖息地流失,以及防止栖息地污染,流失和污染问题已经对水生栖息地造成了严重破坏。文章还提到,掠食性动物所在的生态系统并非弱肉强食这么简单,这是一张由不同种群构成的错综大网,消除当中的一部分,可能会拯救濒危鸟类,但对生态链的其余部分可能会造成无法估量的影响。

Whilst Predator Free 2050 is not free from criticism, the scale and ambition of the project is unlike any other conservation project. Wether it can sustain public support as it gets closer to it’s 2050 remains to be seen.

“2050,零掠食者”虽然有批评,但这项计划的规模和决心都是其他保育计划无法比拟的。朝着2050年的大计,这项计划能否一直得到公众的支持,让我们拭目以待。

“全文请访问千亿千亿国际娱乐官网,本文发表于千亿千亿国际娱乐官网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅千亿千亿国际娱乐官网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表
博评网