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比尔·盖茨的“厕所革命”

更新时间:2018-11-7 18:54:31 来源:千亿千亿国际娱乐官网 作者:佚名

Bill Gates Encourages the World to Build a Better Toilet
比尔·盖茨的“厕所革命”

BEIJING — Bill Gates believes the world needs better toilets.

北京——比尔·盖茨相信,世界需要更好的厕所。

Specifically, toilets that improve hygiene, don’t have to connect to sewage systems at all and can break down human waste into fertilizer.

具体而言,就是改善卫生状况,不用接入排污管网,能把人的粪便分解成肥料的厕所。

So on Tuesday in Beijing, Mr. Gates held the Reinvented Toilet Expo, a chance for companies to showcase their takes on the simple bathroom fixture. Companies showed toilets that could separate urine from other waste for more efficient treatment, that recycled water for hand washing and that sported solar roofs.

于是本周二在北京,比尔·盖茨举办了“新世代厕所博览会”,让企业有机会展示他们在这个简单的卫生间装备上的尝试。多家公司展示了能把尿液和其他排泄物分开以便更有效处理的厕所、能循环水洗手的厕所和带太阳能屋顶的厕所。

It’s no laughing matter. About 4.5 billion people — more than half the world’s population — live without access to safe sanitation. Globally, Mr. Gates told attendees, unsafe sanitation costs an estimated $223 billion a year in the form of higher health costs and lost productivity and wages.

这并不是什么可笑的事。大约有45亿人——超过世界人口的半数——生活里用不上安全的卫生设施。比尔·盖茨告诉与会者,因为不安全的卫生设施导致医疗成本增加以及劳动力和工资的丧失,全球每年大约要损失2230亿美元。

The reinvented toilets on display are a culmination of seven years of research and $200 million given by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, which the former software tycoon runs with his wife, since 2011. On Tuesday, Mr. Gates pledged to give $200 million more in an effort get companies to see human waste as a big business.

博览会上展示的这些新世代厕所是比尔及梅琳达·盖茨基金会(Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation)捐资2亿美元耗时7年的研究成果,该基金会由这位前软件业巨头和妻子从2011年开始运营。就在本周二,比尔·盖茨承诺再出2亿美元,让企业看到人的粪便是一桩大生意。

Mr. Gates said in an interview that “it will be at least a decade” before the reinvented toilets reach tens of millions of people in the poorest areas, and they will have to prove both practical and economical. “Nobody wants overnight solutions” in sanitation, he added.

比尔·盖茨曾在一次采访中说,这些新世代厕所走进最贫穷地区的数千万人“至少需要十年”,而且必须确保它们既实用又经济。他补充说,在卫生问题上,“谁也不指望一夜之间见效的解决方案。”

Though the products on display on Tuesday were nowhere as flashy, Mr. Gates has drawn criticism for giving thousands of dollars to universities in developed countries to create high-tech toilets that will take years to pay off — if they ever do.

尽管周二展出的这些产品朴实无华,比尔·盖茨还是招来了批评,说他投钱给发达国家的大学去发明高科技坐厕,就算真有收效也是好几年之后的事。

“Sometimes doubling down is necessary but you’ve got to be reflective,” said Jason Kass, the founder of Toilets for People, a Vermont-based social business that provides off-grid toilets. “Has any of the approaches done in the last five years created any sustainable lasting, positive impact vis a vis sanitation? And the answer, as far as I can see, is no.”

“有时候加倍投入是有必要,但你得三思而行,”“厕所为人民”(Toilet for People)的创始人杰森·卡斯(Jason Kass)说。设在佛蒙特州的这家社会企业提供移动式厕所。“过去五年里做过的各种尝试给卫生状况带来过任何可持续性的持久、积极作用吗?据我目前看到的,答案是没有。”

“It might be a thing like the space program where people have fantasies about colonizing the moon and Mars, but it’s really not that practical,” he said.

“这事可能就像太空计划,人们幻想着到月球和火星定居,但真的没那么实际。”他说。

Mr. Gates acknowledged that some reinvented toilets, in small volumes, could cost as much as $10,000, but added, “That will pretty quickly come down.”

比尔·盖茨承认某些新世代厕所在小产量情况下可能要花1万美元,但补充说,“价格很快就会降下来。”

“The hard part will be getting it from $2,000 to $500,” he said. “I’d say we are more confident today that it was a good bet than where we started, but we are still not there.”

“难点在于从2000美元降到500美元,”他说,“我想说比起刚开始的时候,今天我们更有信心这个赌注押得对,但革命尚未成功。”

The Gates Foundation said the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank and the African Development Bank would commit $2.5 billion in financing for sanitation projects that provide people in all parts of a city — including the poorest neighborhoods — with safely managed sanitation services.

盖茨基金会表示,世界银行、亚洲开发银行和非洲开发银行将投入25亿美元资助卫生项目,为城市的所有地区——包括最贫穷的居民区——提供安全周到的卫生服务。

“We see ourselves on the cusp of a sanitation revolution,” Mr. Gates told expo attendees on Tuesday.

“我们认为自己正处在卫生革命的关键点上,”比尔·盖茨在周二告诉博览会与会者。

At a showroom in an art center in Beijing, companies including China’s Clear, Ecosan and CRRC, Sedron Technologies of the United States, India’s Eram Scientific and Switzerland’s Blue Diversion Autarky displayed toilets that could separate urine and recycle water for hand washing.

在北京一家艺术中心的展厅里,中国的克立尔、艾科森、中国中车,美国的赛德隆技术(Sedron Technologies),印度的伊兰科技(Eram Scientific) ,瑞士的蓝色分流(Blue Diversion Autarky)等公司展示了能够分离尿液、能循环水洗手的厕所。

During his opening remarks, Mr. Gates said he started getting interested in sanitation after he stopped working full time at Microsoft and began traveling more frequently to poor countries with his wife, Melinda.

在开幕致辞中,比尔·盖茨说他不再全时为微软公司工作之后,开始与妻子梅琳达一起更频繁地去贫穷国家旅行,由此对卫生事业有了兴趣。

Holding up a beaker of fecal matter, Mr. Gates reminded the audience that human waste is disgusting, containing 200 trillion rotavirus cells and 100,000 parasitic worm eggs, among other bacteria.

比尔盖茨举起一杯粪便,告诉观众,人的排泄物令人作呕,其中带有200万亿个轮状病毒、10万个寄生虫卵和其他细菌。

Mr. Gates’s efforts to bring the discussion of toilets into the mainstream have legitimized a topic that many have avoided talking about for decades, said Jack Sim, the founder of the World Toilet Organization, a Singapore-based nonprofit organization committed to improving toilet and sanitation conditions worldwide.

世界厕所组织(World Toilet Organization)的创始人杰克·西姆(Jack Sim)表示,比尔·盖茨此举将厕所讨论纳入主流,使这个许多人几十年来一直避免谈论的话题摆上了台面。这家设在新加坡的非营利组织致力于改善全球的厕所和卫生条件。

“The subject of toilets has been a neglected subject for some time,” said Mr. Sim. “The Gates Foundation is part of this momentum of breaking the taboo.”

“相当一段时间以来,厕所一直是个被忽视的议题,”杰克·西姆说,“盖茨基金会是打破这个禁忌的一股力量。”

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